Some minarchists hold that people should not be allowed to free-ride on the contributions of others toward guaranteed access to a system for protecting life, liberty, and property, but rather must help finance them through a uniform system of marginal taxation on resource use, negative externalities, and land value, as decided under the rule of law by a maximally-decentralized democratic federal constitutional republic.
It's a fallacy of the excluded middle to claim that imperfect justice is perfect injustice. I define "justice for all" as minimizing the net incidence of aggression, using a (metaphorical) aggression-weighting function that recognizes the vast difference between 1) a marginal tax on many people's land value instituted under the rule of law by a maximally-decentralized democratic federal constitutional republic, and 2) the weakest falling victim to the murderous predation of the strongest whenever there is a gap in the charity or fortitude of everybody else. I wouldn't agree that "justice" can only mean the miraculous absence of all aggression, and that the first scintilla of aggression invokes some kind of moral equivalence with absolute absence of justice.
A Taxonomy of Market Interventions
In Libertarian Taxation Theory I describe a hierarchy of principled distinctions among forms of taxation. This hierarchy allows a minarchist to say some kinds of taxes are less bad than others, without conceding that the existence of any one kind of tax can justify every other possible kind of tax. An expanded and more-loosely-ordered hierarchy that considers other forms of state interventions in markets might include the following.
Fines on Negative Externalities
Resource Consumption Fees
Public Good: Defense Against Injustice
Network Natural Monopolies
Public Good: Preventing Damage Due To Holdouts
Public Good: Preventing Deaths Due To Misfortune
Public Good: Providing Positive Externalities
Setting Defaults To Counter Irrationality
- Set defaults regarding insurance, retirement savings, etc. but allow opting out
Setting Defaults To Counter Free-Riding
- Set default contributions to non-ground-rent-increasing public goods, but allow public opt-out
Public Good: Preventing Misery
Regulating Economic Risk-Taking
Regulating Land Use
Socializing Network Services
- Transit services over roads and rails
- Selling electricity, water, gas via pipes and wires
- Route-based services like garbage collection, mail delivery